2017 Math Teacher Suvival Guide Webinar
This video is posted online with the following chapter markers:
Chapter 1. Math Teacher & TVI Collaboration
Chapter 2. Elementary Tips
Chapter 3. Secondary Tips
Chapter 4. Algebra Aerobics
Chapter 5. The Pool Noodle
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Chapter 1. Math Teacher & TVI Collaboration
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Susan: Hello and welcome to the Math Teacher Survival Guide. I'm Susan Osterhaus, Statewide Mathematics Consultant in the Outreach Programs at TSBVI, and it is my pleasure today to introduce you to two outstanding individuals who will share their strategies for teaching mathematics to students with a visual impairment in the general education classroom.
I will begin with Katie Nash. Katie graduated from Our Lady of the Lake College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana with a Bachelor of Science degree in Health Care Administration. Not long after graduating, Katie decided her heart was in education, and she attended Northwestern State University, in Louisiana, to obtain an alternative teacher certification in mathematics. Two years after receiving her teaching certification, she completed her Masters of Education in Curriculum and Instruction. Katie later went on to pursue her certification in blind and visually impaired education through Steven F. Austin University in Texas. After a few successful years as a teacher of the visually impaired, Katie decided to continue her education by obtaining a Dual Sensory Deafblind Impairment certification through Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.
She has worked with diverse populations and programs as a classroom math teacher, grades 4‑6, Itinerant VI Teacher and District Assistive Technology Specialist.
Now, let me introduce you to Yvonne Corson. Yvonne has a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from University of Texas in San Antonio. She did research work at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio and at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. However, she has been a certified secondary math teacher since 1999. She is certified to teach math in both Texas and California and has taught Algebra for 18 years. Yvonne had the pleasure of teaching four students with visual impairments, two with low vision and two braille readers. She is currently obtaining her TVI certification and started working here, at TSBVI, just this fall.
The purpose of today's webinar is to assist the general education math teacher who has a student with a visual impairment in his or her classroom.
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Title: Purpose
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Help math teachers who have students with visual impairments in their classes understand how the TVI can help them with that student (and it helps others, too!)
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We want the math teacher to understand that the students' TVI or Teacher of the Visually Impaired is there to help, by providing advice, materials, and tools to support the math teacher's instruction and, while doing so, the entire class often benefits.
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Katie: So we're glad y'all are here today. As we get started, it's really important as a TVI to build a relationship with the classroom teachers... and math especially, because that is a subject that for our visually impaired kids, sometimes they can struggle with. So for building relationships as a TVI, I like to schedule a meeting before school starts to meet with the teachers, to give them some insight into what the student's visual impairment is, and how they can best assist the student in the classroom.
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Title: Getting Started
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• Collaborating with the General Ed teachers takes a plan:
o Develop a rapport
o Explain the specific visual impairment of the student in their class
o Plan for the role of the paraprofessional (if there is one_
o Set up a calendar for times to collaborate – typically planning time
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It also helps to meet to discuss if there is a paraprofessional going to be in the classroom, what those roles are, and what that looks like, so that the teacher feels confident in the aide being in the room. It's also an important time at the beginning of the year to set a schedule of when the math teacher and TVI can collaborate. Because collaboration is huge with our visually impaired kids, because we have to adapt materials, we have to bring manipulatives, have things put into large print and into braille.
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Title: Collaboration
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• Meet before school starts with the class objective/test schedules, etc
• Set up a system for getting assignments: a mailbox, a Google Drive
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So, finding a time we can collaborate-- it usually works best during a conference period. So, those of you listening that are a math teacher, just-- I advise you just to meet with your TVI and discuss a time that's good for both of you. That way you can kind of meet, talk about what day of the week will be best, what time. That way your schedules don't conflict.
With collaboration, that brings us into how we get documents to and from, for the student. So, I am a district TVI, so I work on multiple campuses. So, I have a mailbox on every campus, where the teachers can place the materials that need to be transcribed, or put into large print. This works well on some campuses for teachers who like the whole paper pass, let me stick it in your box, I know that I did it. But some teachers, especially in the digital age we live in, like to have things electronic. And so I've created, in my district, a Google Drive that is a VI Dropbox. So all the teachers have access to the Dropbox and they can place items in the Dropbox for me, and it will tell me the dates and all of that. So we have a little video that kind of shows you and walks you through this, but feel free, if you have questions, after the video plays, don't hesitate to ask.
[ Video start: ]
So collaborating with classroom teachers is a big, important component. And I've found that creating a Google Drive that is accessible to the teachers is helpful for getting materials back and forth for accessibility. So, I have created a Google Drive called the VI Dropbox, and all of my teachers have access to it.
So I'm going to click on the Dropbox. And as you can see, I have my students listed. They each have their own folder. So, for instance, Sammy, Jennifer, Sue, and Bob. They all have their own folder. And their teachers can click on their name, and... they will see any files that have been up uploaded, but they can also go into the new... button and add a file.
And it shows me, in the owner section, who uploaded it, so I know which teacher. And it also will send me an email, letting me know that something has been uploaded. So, Jennifer Sue has a- has a math test that's been loaded. And then, I can go back and I can see that Bob has two science tests that have been uploaded. The classroom teachers and myself find this to be very useful, very beneficial for getting the documents to the transcriber in time for the students to have... at the same time as their peers.
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So, basically that was a walk‑through of the folders I had created. Just-- it helps. It helps the classroom teacher... get materials. They know they can go back and look. Did I upload that math test? Did I upload that worksheet? Whatever it is. And they've been given a time-line of how many days before it's going to be taught as a class, that it has to be submitted to me, to get it back from the transcriber.
So, Yvonne is going to talk a little bit about MathType.
Yvonne: Yes, so... as a secondary math teacher... MathType is... is a good tool, especially it-- with the braille, the braille devices, the electronic braille devices that the students use. So... there are two basic types of these devices that the kids use. One of them is called an Apex, that's the older version. And... when you have things that you want to send to the students or whatnot, you can type anything up in Word. The key thing, though, you need to save it as a .doc, not docx. So, you have to make sure you save it in that right format. But I could type up word problems, whatnot, and can just hand the flash-drive to my student, they plug it into their device and they're good.
There's also another-- and as far as math, you can't use MathType on those machines. So, if- if they have an older version of, you know, it's called an Apex, they have an older electronic Braillenote, you're going to have to get your stuff planned ahead of time, and into the TVI so that they can go ahead and get... the materials adapted for them.
There's a Braillenote Touch. That one takes MathType. So MathType-- you can actually type something up, and put it on a flash drive, give it to your student in MathType, and with the Braillenote Touch-- from your computer to the student. So, of course these are for things that, you know, pop up.
So, right now I'd like to go ahead and let's watch a video to kind of-- there's some short cut keys that are amazing, that took me a while to figure out, but there's some shortcut keys that are really beneficial. So let's watch this video.
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Yvonne: If you're a secondary math teacher, chances are you already know how to do MathType. If you don't, there's a couple of functions that are super handy, shortcut keys, in case you don't know about them. So, when doing something like... dividing polynomials, it is important for the braille reader to be able to have it in a hard copy. So some TVIs refer to it as bumpy braille. But a hard copy so they can actually visualize with their fingers what is- what is happening. So first thing we're going to do is we're going to go to Insert, Object. And we're going to look for MathType. MathType converts easily with the-- Braillenote readers that the students use.
So, then you can type one. And then to do a space, the shortcut key for space is control-space bar. All right? Now you can... do a fraction. You can go up here and you can actually then choose the fraction. Or there's a shortcut key. Shortcut key is control-F. Control-F will give you that same fraction bar, so it will make things a little bit quicker. All right? So I'm going to type X squared, so type X-- to get the exponent, you can come up here to this little... item, press on it, and it would be this first square for the exponent. And you can type a 2. When you want to come down to the baseline, just simply hit tab. Now, of course there's a shortcut key for the exponent, as well. So that is control-H. So think control high. You want the exponent as higher than the base. Again, hit tab to get you back down to the baseline. So plus X minus 6.
If I click tab again. Tab will put you down in the denominator. And you can repeat the process. X, control H-- gives you the exponent. Push tab-- to get you back down to the baseline. Plus 3X minus ten. Now, to get back up, simply hit tab. Tab is your new best friend. Equals.
Now if you were going to show the student, like in a note setting, how this works, then simply you're going to want control-F, for fraction-- X plus 3-- X minus 2. Tab. Parentheses, and the parentheses, I'm just using the parentheses that are on the keyboard so I don't-- you don't actually have to go up and find them in this program. Same with the addition sign and subtraction sign. All right? Tab. Okay? Equals.
So, it's important that you especially show this step in the hard copy, so that the students can tactilely feel that the X minus 2 factors will cancel out. All right? If... you don't do this, then what happens in their Braillenote Touch, they- they see everything linearly. So they'll just get one line at a time, and they don't get the full picture of the actual numerator and denominator. Okay?
So control-F again for fraction. Parentheses, X plus 3. Again, tab. X plus 5. There you have it. Then simply... click-- so if you need some more, just you could hit enter and then start with your next problem. Remember control-space gives you the spaces that you need. Okay? You can put as many as you want, but you should only put one space in between, so that... when it gets converted it will convert nicely. Simply X out. And... there you have it. Done.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So remember, a lot of TVIs, or teacher of students with visual impairments, they're not math teachers. So, you want to relay the information that I need this to be on paper, in this format, so the student can actually see the crossing out or the cancelling of the binomials, in that case.
Okay? So, now we're going to talk about... how do you set up a classroom? Okay? Seating is based on a student's specific need. Their etiology, like, do they have vision?
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Title: Setting Up a Classroom
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• Seating – based on the specific student’s etiology
• Added tables
• Designated shelves
• Safety – clear pathway for exit door
• Plan for rearranging the room (students can do this!)
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Do they have vision just in the right eye? Do they have something in the middle of their eye and they only have peripheral vision? So, these are all things that you need to know, and your TVI needs to let you know about your student. If your student is totally blind, then sitting them at the front of the class might not be the best place for them, okay? With students with visual impairments, they have a lot of technology. They have that Braillenote Touch. I've had students with low vision have the old overhead calculators, when we had overhead projectors, that they used that on a light box. So that's pretty big right there. They used that old graphing calculator hooked to the light source. So, again, a lot of room.
So, you want to have tables and space for them to put their- their stuff-- designated shelves. Make sure-- me in high school, the kids bring their backpacks and put them right in middle of the aisle. It's like an obstacle course whenever you teach. Make sure you let the students know they need to keep that aisleway clear. Another thing, is if there is a fire drill, plan for a fire drill for that student. You're trying to get all of your stuff together. Make sure that you have a student who's normally there, who's not the attendance issue, you know, be your... visually impaired student-- their new best friend so that they can, you know, help them... get out of the classroom safely. Okay? Whenever you rearrange the room for groups and things like this, you need to let the student know ahead of time, because they have their planned little paths, and if you have everything all rearranged, they're going to be bumping into things, it's not what they expect. So--
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center photo: Figure 1 Photo of a clean and tidy classroom
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Katie: We have a couple examples... of good classrooms and bad. This is an example of a good classroom. So, this is a classroom of a... completely blind student in middle school. As you can see from the door, he has a clear path to... his bookshelf, is the one with all the white books on it. Those are his braille books. And then his table is directly in front of it. So, he knows, from mobility, to come in the door, trail to the bookshelf, and then go 90 degrees out to his chair. So, this is a picture of a good example.
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center photo: Figure 2 Photo of classroom that is cluttered
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Yvonne: And then, here's the bad one. So if you look, you can see, you know, here's-- where am I? Right there. So right here. See all the clutter? See you have some boxes over here. Like they're empty boxes. What are you saving them for? Put them away. So... everything is cluttered. By the way, the door is over this way. So, yes, they have easy access to the door, but look at all the clutter. And then the teacher decided to use that bookshelf for their stuff, for their junk. So, when you have a student-- their braille books come in, like-- at least for algebra came in four boxes. Four boxes-- volumes-- like about 18 volumes, I believe, with algebra one textbook. So, you know, they need a lot of room to- to put their items. Okay.
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center photo: Figure 3 Photo of ideal classroom where outlet is nearby
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Now this one is better. This one would be for a student... with a visual impairment versus being totally blind. So, they're close to the projector screen, so that they can see. There's also a plug underneath that projector screen so that they can plug in any kind of electronic devices that they need, including their graphing calculator. A lot of them don't charge it, so you need to prepare for that. I would even get an outlet, and put it in there just for the student.
Some student don't need to sit in the front. There's some etiologies... where the student needs to maybe sit in the second row versus the first row. Like I said, ask the student. Glare could become an issue. So, definitely if you have your overhead projector shining on a whiteboard, like a lot of us like to do, that creates glare, and that could cause some severe issues for a student with... visual impairment, as well. So, you know, get with your TVI and discuss about what's going to benefit the student.
Katie: Be mindful of windows, if you have windows in your classroom, as well. That can cause glare, as well.
Chapter 2. Elementary Tips
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Title: Elementary Tips
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Yvonne: So now some tips for elementary. Katie?
Katie: So, we're going to have a couple of tips for elementary, and then we'll move on to secondary. The first one for elementary is a very basic, very basic concept that's taught in the primary levels, which is one-to-one correspondence.
So we've created a video so you can see a addressing of the materials we used to do a lesson with a student.
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[ Video start: ]
Katie: So this is a pre-kinder skill of one‑to‑one correspondence. What we have here is some just buttons, big chunky tactile buttons. You can get them at any craft store, and six-- six cup muffin pan. It's good for a lot of different thing,s when you're working with children with visual impairments. So, basically in one‑to‑one correspondence, in a nutshell, it's matching one item to a corresponding item. So, for instance, this-- you know, this muffin hole is going to get one button. And next button-- muffin hole is going to get one button. It's one-to-one. One-to-one.
So, you can elaborate on this a little bit by throwing in a dice. It can be a braille dice. It can be a talking dice. Either way. So, I have a- I have the talking dice right here from APH, and... I'm just gonna- I gonna roll it. So I got three. So, in this first hole, I could put three. This lets me practice the activity six times, before dumping the tray. So, I could roll the dice again, and I get five. So, I would take five more buttons, and I would put them in the next spot. And so on and so forth.
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Katie: A lot of times the materials that we use as TVIs are found at craft stores, are found in regular classrooms. When I taught, you know, math-- fourth grade math-- I used a lot of the same manipulatives, now, that I used, then, with students. So, anything- anything that you have accessible to you can work. Just-- if you use it for another student, you can probably use it for a student with visual impairments.
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Title: Pattern and Sequencing
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center photo: Figure 4 Brightly colored legos connected in different patterns
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So this is patterning and sequencing. This is another lower level, primary level skill. All we've used here is we've used leg goes. So, these do have a couple different things. They are tactile. You can see the bumps on them. They are bright in color. So these work with a low vision student, or a student who is a tactile learner. And basically it's just patterning. This is a skill that is taught in the lower levels, and so there's two different examples there. But it gives them the tactile representation, as well as, they're able to count it, they're able to see it. Whatever works for them.
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Title: Flash Cards
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center photo: Figure 5 Flash Cards with pasta attached
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The next one is flash cards. We know that learning math facts is an important basic level skill for our kids, and... sometimes they need it to be tactile form, or sometimes they need to be in large print. So, these are just dollar store flash cards that we adapted. We glued pasta on them, and they were already in large print. We did add braille. Actually, these were stuck straight through a Perkins Brailler. They weren't put on with labels. So these are just those card stock flash cards. You could use it for a number of different things. You can use it in the classroom. Maybe send this home, that they can work on at home with their parents. Just another way for them to be able to practice the skills that they're using in class.
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Title: Magnetic Numbers with Braille
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center photo: Figure 6 Magnetic Tactile Numbers 1-9 with Braille
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This next one is one of my favorites. I really love these magnetic numbers with braille. They're- they're large print. They are-- they have braille already on them so you don't have to get a sticker, you don't have to do any of that. They're magnetic, so they will stick on a cookie sheet or a fridge, or whatever you have accessible to you. I view these, for a student with visual impairment, as what we would use in... a classroom. Say, you give the students each their own dry erase board and expo marker. This is the same concept. So, these come in a box with different operations. There are multiple numbers in there, you know, there's three ones, three twos, so you have plenty of variety. Stick them in a pouch. Give them to the kids when you give everybody else a marker and board. These are magnetic, so they can manipulate them, they can work with them on their own board. So it gives them a little bit of independence, if they are needing that tactile piece. These are great for, really, any kid. They do have braille on them, which is awesome, but any kid could use these. And we have the website. They were bought at the braille bookstore online, and it should be in handout.
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Title: Choices for Dice Math Games
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center photo: Figure 7 Large yellow and green foam dice, Talking Dice, and 2 Braille Dice
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The next one is dice. So we know, I know, as an elementary math teacher, previously, that our students love math games. They love to participate with their friends. In my room we had stations, so they rotated through on a timer. And our kids really do enjoy the time to socialize with their friends while playing a math game. And most of the math games can be adapted for a student with a visual impairment. So in this picture, you see a couple different types of dice that are available. So you-- we have big tactile dice, we have braille dice, we have the talking dice. So, there are options for those math games that you use in your classroom that have dice, are related to dice. Your kids can play them. So, just ask your TVI if you need the resource. Let them know. They'll be more than happy to bring them to your class so your kids can participate.
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Title: Braille Playing Cards
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center photo: Figure 8 Braille playing cards
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The next one goes right along with it. Braille playing cards. So, a lot of the math games have to do with using a deck of cards. It's cheap. It's easy. The kids love it. And you can get braille playing cards, or modify a deck. Put a deck-- stick them through the Perkins-- you know, have your TVI, ask them if they will. It's very easy. It doesn't take a whole lot of time. These in the picture were purchased braille playing cards, but, again, you can use a labeler, anything like that. So, just letting our kids participate in other activities that their peers participate in.
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Title: Color by Number Activities
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center photo: Photo 9 Tactile Art Braille Book
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And then the last one for elementary, this is one of my personal favorites. This is something, when I was a classroom teacher, and I had a student with a visual impairment, a braille reader in my class, my students loved to do the color activity, like solve these math problems, and this question one you color the square red, or color this purple. And especially during holiday times, it gave them something to take home, hang on the wall, show their parents, put on the fridge. They really enjoy it, and it is building on their skills. So, I was trying to find a way for my braille student to be able to do these activities without it-- with it being meaningful, with it giving them something to take home. So, through research online, I found, on Paths to Literacy, a lady who does have braille art, listed on Paths to Literacy--, and the link is in the handout. But I printed them all out. There's about 50 of them, and I put them in a spiral. And there's one that's a snowman. There's one that's Santa Claus. There's one that's the Easter bunny. So, when I would give my kids those activities, I could give the student the math work, and instead of for number 1 him color purple, he would do line one of the braille activity. So at the end of the problems, he would have a braille image that he could take home and show his parents. And it was not only building on his math skills, but also building on his braille skills, and getting him to use the Perkins and participate with his peers. That's the main thing, is keeping our kids included, and making the activities just as meaningful for them as we do everyone else in the class. So this is one of my personal favorites.
Chapter 3. Secondary Tips
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Title: Secondary Tips
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Yvonne: So, as far as secondary tips-- what I don't have with me today, I'm sorry, are-- I made some integer flash cards. So, especially, I know integers get taught in sixth, seventh, eighth grades. I know they get taught, and the kids swear, "We never learned that!" Anyway, I... made some integer flash cards, and then you can give your cards to your TVI, and they can print out some in braille, and then the kids can actually "flash" each other as a warm‑up to learn their skills. Especially at the beginning of the year.
So, here's some secondary tips, and so my-- my thing is... I would send things off and then depending, because a lot of, you know, the district braillers-- or braillists get-- they'll get bogged down. So, time is critical for you to follow that time piece, for the turnaround time, to get your things back. But I know, like, "Oh, I gave my students a quiz, and they all bombed it. So, now I have to re-teach before I move on!" Well, you need something for the next day. So, you obviously don't have time, another week, to get things done. So, these next few videos are going to show you how you could quickly-- you yourself as a general ed teacher-- this is what I did-- you could quickly adapt anything for your... student... with visual impairment. So, the first one is an APH... graph board.
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[ Video start: ]
Yvonne: This thing, here, is from APH, as well. So it's bought with quota money. So, that means free is good. And it's gonna be your best friend in a general education math... class. So, basically it's a rubber board, and you can stick push pins in it. So, you can have it-- if you take the rubber bands off, they're removable, so you can actually have quadrant one or if you need the four quadrants. Put more little... push pins, and then rubber bands for your X and Y axis. Again, I like to distinguish my origin, or the origin, from any of the other... things I'm going to use. That wait student knows exactly what-- where the origin is.
So, when you do systems, two different lines, in this case. So, I have two different shaped push pins. So, I'm going to graph a system of linear equations. My first one is going to be Y equals 1/5X plus 2. So I would start at 2. Go up one, over one, two, three, four-- five. Up one, one, two, three, four-- five. So up right. Go down one, two, three okay, four, five-- down and left. One, two, three, four, five. Okay.
Have these rubber bands. If you need more, you can... tie them together. So the student will put the rubber bands around the-- around the pins to mark the line.
Okay, so our next equation is Y equals X minus 2. So I start at negative 2 on the Y axis. Go up one, over one, up one, over one. This is also good so the person can-- the student can feel, "Oh, I need to go up this way, versus, if I come down this way it's not going to intersect anywhere." So one over one. One over one. Hopefully they'll say, "Hey, there's a- there's a... pin here already!" So, then they will be able to realize that that is their solution. And, again, they can put the... rubber bands around. And there you have it.
These are great for... them-- if you don't get graphics back in time, you can always pull this out and with-- if they're doing a test, just have them do it on here. You keep a blank copy of the test, and you check off as they do all of their graphs to demonstrate their skills. Very, very handy, handy, handy.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So next thing that we're going to go through is the raised line graph paper. So, let's watch the video and... then we'll talk about it when we're done.
[ Video start: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So one of the things... that's the most useful for me as a general ed teacher... in secondary math was to always have these... grids, these tactile grids. You can get them from APH. And also, you know, we have these letters and numbers, as well. But to make your own graph.
Things come up at the last minute all the time, or you forgot to send something off. So, to make a quick graph is a... is a big thing. So, I have my little braille box. It has... things like fabric paint, sticky dots, always have to have a pair of scissors, and then there's this architect tape. It's a-- they're different widths. The really skinny one isn't the best to use. I use the thick one, and then there's one that's in between these two that's- that's really handy.
So, what you'll do is you'll just... make X and Y axis, so it's just tape. So there's your X axis, and there's your Y axis. Okay? Good math teacher always labels their axis. So, we'll get the sticky. So, here's the braille X. And we'll label X. And we'll label Y, up at the top. Okay.
So I'm going to be graphing Y equals X squared. So for the origin, sometimes even with this tape, if you imagine your-- if you have your eyes closed, and you try and imagine what your student is trying to feel, that's how you know if you make a good graphic or not. If you can't tell the difference, then they're not going to be able to tell the difference. So, what I like to do is for the origin, I like to get-- give it a separate shape. So I use the sticky dots, and... I cut, like, a square from the excess. And I put it as, like, a little diamond shape. That way the student will be able to identify the origin because it's-- of its shape versus a round, circular dot for a point. Okay? So, you can use these sticky dots. So, you know, the Y equals X squared is... up one, over one, then up one, two, three, over one. And of course I would be doing the reflective points as I go along. And then up one, two, three, four, five over one. All right? So, you can do it with just dots only, if that's what you need it to be. If it was, let's say, a discreet graph.
If it was a continuous graph, then you would use the... fabric paint. So, I go ahead and mark the point... one, two, three, one. One, two, three, four, five, one. Okay. And... connect the dots. Right? You can put arrows on the end. Okay. So you can-- here's two different things. So, if it's a continuous graph, you can use the paint. If it's not, you can use the sticky dots, or both. So, just let it dry overnight. A quick down dirty... thing for a student.
For, as far as continuous domain and range graphs. Here I already have an X‑Y coordinate grid already labeled. The open circle, open dot, closed dot. I use the sticky dot that I've already used. If you notice they're depressed. So you can actually use this as an open-- the open circle. So, the student will be able to feel the depression, the open circle. And then, of course, use another dot for wherever else this thing ends up. And with your fabric paint... connect the two. So, you can also make some domain and range problems, as well.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: All right. So make sure that you-- if you do this during school time and not, like, after the kids have left, you put them somewhere away, because regular ed kids are so fascinated with braille and fascinated with the tactile graphics. And I can't tell you how many times they came up to my desk, and they'd have to touch it. Of course, it's wet and so they mess it up. Make sure-- yeah. Because they're freshmen. What can I say? [ Laughter ]
[ Slide start: ]
Description Start:
Title: APH Raised Lined Graph Paper
Content:
center photo: Photo 10 Modified graph project
Description End:
All right. The next picture that I'm going to show you is-- I don't know if you've heard the stained glass window project that you can-- you know, the kids can do their slope and graphing lines and whatnot. So, I gave it as a project, and I adapted it, you know, using the raised line paper, and making the X and Y axis. If you notice that there's a little orange spot in the middle of the-- you know, one of the square ends of the sticky dots but not the dot, for the origin. And then I used Wikki Stix. So, you know, ask your TVI. You shouldn't be spending any of your own money. Ask your TVI to provide you with some Wikki Stix. My student thoroughly enjoyed this. I think they're supposed to have 15 lines, but we only did, like about 12, because it was getting too busy, too cumbersome; but he actually loved this project.
[ Slide end: ]
All right. So, the next real... handy tool that is super helpful in the classroom is called a Draftsman. So let's watch that video.
[ Video start: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So another thing that's super handy to have in a classroom is this Draftsman. So, they do make another- another one that's similar. This thing is called an Intact. This one is not quota money. So, if you're in a public school, you probably won't have these. You'll have these. And pretty much the only difference is these are flat. So if you have a ruler or something you can lay it across. Not a problem.
This Intact one has a beveled edge. So if you were going to have a ruler it would have to be the width of the screen. What's nice about this one is you put the paper down and you close it. Just like the old close‑in plates. Y'all are too young for that, I'm sure. This one, little more cumbersome. You lift up the side, you put this paper-- this paper, when you apply pressure, creates a 3D image. So close, close. You have your stylus. So if you want to describe let's say what perpendicular lines are, you simply just can draw quickly... perpendicular lines. And- and as you see this, I can tactilely feel it as well. Okay? So I did-- with my student-- we were doing right triangles, and for whatever reason, I didn't have the graphics. So, you can draw your triangle, you can... mark the right angle in it. So, the student can actually feel that right angle. And of course you can explain the hypotenuse. These are the legs. If you need to label, you can, again, get these. Get several sheets of these. You will use them up. So you can label them A... B... C for the edges, or if you wanted to actually label the legs, then of course, you know, you would put the C here. A and B doesn't matter. So, in a pinch, you can do this.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So remember, ask at the beginning of the year-- make a note. Ask your TVI, if you can get that-- what I call my little braille box, my little braille kit. So, you want to get those numbers, like we just showed you with the letters. They also have brailled numbers, as well, that are handy. So get the numbers, a couple sheets of numbers and letters. Get the sticky dots. You want the architect tape, and you want that raised... graph paper.
Chapter 4. Algebra Aerobics
Okay? So, next thing, students-- you know, like all students, the more they're moving, the more they're engaged, the more they're going to remember it. So, this is a way to... do algebra with a student... who is blind or visually impaired, and it helps them with their proprioceptive... awareness. So, let's watch this video.
[ Video start: ]
Yvonne: All right. So this is the technique that I like to use, called Algebra Aerobics. This is great for a classroom. It gets the students' bodies moving, and they tend to remember it, because they're actually doing the exercises, saying the exercises, and so, then, they're using more of their senses. They'll tend to remember it. Especially with a student who has total vision loss. Then... this is really huge for them as well. Because they don't see the graphs. Feeling takes a while. This they'll remember.
So, remember when you model-- or when I model for a classroom, I always face the chalkboard. We have positive slope, up and to the right, positive slope. Negative slope, down and to the right. And I say, "Down, right, negative." Okay? We have zero slope. And then we have undefined. [clap] And I actually use a clap because the kids, even if they're in high school, they still get a kick out of it.
So here's my student with visual impairment. This is Kelly to demonstrate. So, remember if someone is totally blind, you should always ask if you can touch them, because they don't see you coming, and you don't want to startle them. So, Kelly, may I... touch you so you can demonstrate for the class these concepts?
Kelly: Yes.
All right. I'm going to spin you this way. Okay. So positive slope, up, right. Negative slope, down, right, negative. Zero slope. And then undefined. So, let me turn your palms up, and then we're going to reach for the sky and clap. [clap] [ Laughter ]
Okay. When you do this technique with someone who is totally blind, hand under hand. You want your hand underneath them. You don't want to pull on them ever. You want to guide then underneath, all right? So positive slope, negative slope, zero slope, undefined. [clap] Good.
All right. Now, we can also use this technique for more Algebra Aerobics, for when you get into the nitty‑gritty of the functions. So, like, with the quadra-- excuse me, the linear parent function is Y equals X.
So, we can have Kelly here. We can demonstrate Y equals X, all right? So now we can say Y equals 2X. S,o what's going to happen is my line is going to get steeper. Okay? Go back to Y equals X. Y equals one half X, less steep. Okay? Y equals X, linear parent function.
Now we're going to say Y equals X plus 2. So, I'm going to have-- I'm going to go in front of Kelly, and... I have my Y equals X. Kelly put your arms on my-- your hands on my arms, so you see what's happening. There you go. So, I'm at Y equals X. So, Y equals X plus 2, I am translating up the Y axis one, two... right? So, I'm off of zero, zero, going up two spaces. So, if I'm at Y equals X minus two I'm going to drop. So, I have Y equals X and Y equals X minus 2. So I drop down two spaces. All right?
So, let's try with Kelly. Okay? Do your Y equals X. All righty. So Y equals X plus 3. One, two, three. Good job. So, we're back at Y equals X. Y equals X minus one. Good. Okay, now Y equals negative X. So, a negative in front of your X is going to... reflect. So, we are going to reflect Y equals negative X, and from there you can carry on in your classroom.
So, this is a huge, huge important thing for the students-- all students. Especially when you say, "What does undefined-- something with a slope of undefined look like?" [clap] They remember the clap, "undefined." Awesome job, Kelly. Thank you.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: Boy, I bet she was a cheerleader. [ Laughter ] Actually, she was.
Okay, one other thing I forgot to mention, and this is good with any- any teacher. Always announce, like if- if someone is coming into the room, have them announce their presence, because a student who is blind or even visually impaired, usual they can't see distance distances. So have them go ahead and--
Katie: Identify themselves.
Yvonne: --identify themselves when they're entering a room and when they're leaving a room. Okay?
Chapter 5. The Pool Noodle
So, the next thing, so is a pool noodle. So, you know that wonderful algebra two TEKS that came down into the Algebra one TEKS, and it's with the... quadratic transformations. So, let's look at this next video and you can see how I presented it in my classroom.
[ Video start: ]
Yvonne: So, when teaching quadratic transformations, I find that... getting your students, all students really, as involved as possible with visual... things to look at, while you explain, is the best way to teach. So hence, we have our pool noodle. So, if we were talking about the quadratic parent function, so Y requests X squared. You have your noodle, Y equals X squared. So then you can talk about-- and I would actually have my... student with visual impairment hold and demonstrate for the class. If I have Y equals 2X squared, it's going to be... more steep. In other words, vertical stretch. Remember vertical stretch. Vertical up and down, so you're stretching to the sky, so you're getting your-- your parabola is getting narrower.
Okay, if I have Y equals one half X squared, it's a vertical compression, so vertical, up and down, so I have my noodle and I'm pushing down vertically on it to make it wider. Okay? Vertical compression. Vertical stretch. If I have Y equals negative X squared, what does a negative do? Right. It reflects. So, in this case it will reflect about X axis.
So now we get to the weird problems. The weird ones are the ones that are in parentheses. So, if I have Y equals 2X, closed parentheses, and it's squared. So, 2X times 4X is 2X squared so that actually is going to look like this, which you would think-- I mean, the students think, oh, vertical stretch, but it's not. They're weird because of the parentheses. So what's happening is, you have your Y equals X squared function, and it's a horizontal compression, horizontal means side to side. So I am pushing on it to where it looks like it's a vertical stretch. But it's actually a horizontal compression.
Likewise, if I have a negative X-- so Y equals parentheses negative X, close the parentheses, and that's squared, it's going to look like the quadratic parent function. Negative X times negative X, is positive X squared. So, it's going to look like this. In the calculator, it's going to look like this. So remember, with that negative, there's a reflection going on. So what's actually happening is, is the parabola is reflecting about the Y axis. So, this pool noodle is actually a very handy tool, especially for the student with visual impairment, because they actually have to physically manipulate what is going on, when tactilely they wouldn't be able to tell the difference.
[ Video end: ]
Yvonne: Okay. So it's always important to include... your student with blindness or visual impairment. A lot of times they feel isolated, and- and a lot of students are-- it's not that they're trying to be mean. It's they're not sure how to interact with that student. So to make anything-- to make them as much as you can a part of that class, is huge.
[ Slide start: ]
Description Start:
Title: Testing Tips
Content:
left-side text:
• STAAR Formula Charts
– Get three copies
• STAAR Braille Released Tests
left-side photo: Figure 11 Page from print and braille versions of the STAAR 2016 Algebra 1 Released Test
right-side photo: Figure 12 STAAR Grade 3 Mathematics Reference Materials, May 2016, in print and braille
right-side photo: Figure 13 STAAR Algebra 1 Reference Materials, July 2016, in print and braille
Description End:
Okay. So Katie is going to talk about some... testing tips.
Katie: So for the STAAR, we all know that STAAR is every year, and... it rolls around every spring. [ Laughter ] And I find it useful to-- a lot of districts give a benchmark test in February, before the real STAAR. And a lot of times they'll send it to a transcriber, but these tests are available through ETS. They do charge. But, it's better to get it from them, because the graphics are exactly like they're going to see it. When you get it from a transcriber, it's still on just plain white braille paper, and when you get it in these testing booklets, it's on a different type of paper. The drawings are more raised, more tactile for the student, and it's good for them to practice using what they will be using on that day. It kind of lessens the anxiety students get. They get anxiety about tactile graphics, because some of them, honestly, are very hard to read. And so, giving them the experience of using something that actually was given to a student the year prior, I find to be beneficial. It's also important to get a copy of the formula charts. The formula charts do come in braille. They are separate from the test booklet, so you can pull them out, you can lay them side by side. I find it important to get a couple copies, three, one for the student to take home, one for the classroom, and then always have an extra.
Yvonne: And I do this at the beginning of the year, not necessarily getting it from ETS. I give my formula chart to my TVI, so that she could go ahead and braille. And then, also, if any of you are physics or chemistry teachers and they have those formula charts, you want to get those things ahead of time because, you know, a blind student is not going to be able to read the paper.
[ Slide start: ]
Description Start:
Title: Resources
Content:
• Braille Art Instructions
• Braille Magnetic Numbers - $9.95 w Free Shipping
• Hard copies of STAAR released braille tests can be ordered by calling ETS Order Services at 800-537-3160
Description End:
So that brings us to resources.
Katie: The sum of the-- the resources should be in the handout that was emailed to you. If you didn't get it, please email in. They gave the address in the chat box. The resources are really some of the things we've talked about, where to find it, some of it is through APH, some of it-- the tests are through ETS. The braille art is from Paths to Literacy. So there's just a couple different options, but the resources should be on the handout.
[ Slide start: ] repeat previous slide
Yvonne: And remember, go through your TVI. Your teacher of the student with visual impairment. They're the ones that really access these things. Don't think that because you're a general ed teacher, "Oh, my gosh, I have to do all of this!" Because you don't. That's what your TVI is for. So make sure you just-- I just wanted you to be aware to go through her or him to get these resources.
Katie: Don't be afraid to ask. That's what we're here for. We're here to help you, help the student, in the best way we can together as a team.
Yvonne: So do any of you have any questions or comments?
Susan: You have a whole minute. [ Laughter ]
Yvonne: Start typing away.
[ Slide end: ]
So, well, remember when you're playing with those flash cards or the deck of cards that you and your students are playing with a full deck of cards.
Susan: Everybody you're supposed to laugh at that. [ Laughter ]
Yvonne: Yeah, that was a joke.
Susan: Okay. I think you did a great job. So I'm-- and look at this, you've got two seconds.
Yvonne: Thanks, guys.
Katie: Thanks for being with us.
[Silence]
Fade up from black.
Animation: Text for TSBVI transform into braille cells for TSBVI.
Fade to black.